Monday, January 27, 2014

Life expectancy increases by 5 years in the past decade



The health indicators across the country have shown significant improvements. The life expectancy has increased by 5 years in the past decade. What used to be 62.3 years for male and 63.9 years for female in 2001-2005 is now 67.3 years for male and69.6 years for female in 2011-2015. There has been reduction in new HIV cases by as much as 57%. Infant Mortality Rate has come down to 42 in 2012 from 58 per 1000 live births in the year 2005. Maternal Mortality Ratio has declined from 301 per 100,000 live births in 2001-03 to 212 in 2007-09. The pace of decline has shown an increasing trend from 4.1% annual rate of decline during 2001-03 to 5.5% in 2004-06 and further to 5.8% in 2007-09. Total Fertility Rate has come down to 2.4 in 2011 from 2.9 in 2005. Adding a new feather in the cap is declaration of India as Polio Free Nation. On the 13th January, 2014, India made history by completing three years without a single case of wild polio. This feat was unimaginable till 2009, when India accounted for more than half of the global polio burden.
The National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) as a sub-mission of National Health Mission (NHM) was approved by the Cabinet on 1st May, 2013. It envisages to meet health care needs of the urban population with the focus on urban poor, by making available to them essential primary health care services and reducing their out of pocket expenses for treatment. In the 12th Plan an allocation of Rs. 15,143 crores has been made for National Urban Health Mission.

The Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram (JSSK), launched in June 2011, entitles all new-borns and children under one year of age besides pregnant women to absolutely free and no expense services including free diagnostics, drugs, consumables, food and blood, if required, besides free transport from home to institution, between facilities in case of a referral and drop back home.
Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RBSK) was launched in February, 2013. It entitles children in the age group of zero to eighteen years across the country to receive free health screening services and free treatment including surgeries, where required.
The Government has implemented Home Based Newborn Care up to 42 days of life through ASHAs, Newborn care corners (NBCC) at delivery points and training of health care providers in Navjaat Shishu Suraksha Karyakram(NSSK) for effective essential newborn care is a key component of the newborn continuum of care have been established. And Special New Born Care Units (SNCUs) at FRUs/DH and Newborn Stabilisation Units (NBSUs) have been established to provide care to sick, low birth weight and preterm newborns.
The Rashtriya Kishor Swasthya Karyakram (RKSK), launched recently, aims to bring in several new dimensions like- mental health, nutrition, substance misuse, gender based violence and non-communicable diseases. The programme introduces community based interventions through peer educators. The strategic approach to RMNCH+A (Reproductive, Maternal, New born, Child Health + Adolescent) in which `A` denotes adolescents

The Government has launched some of new vaccines like indigenously developed JE Vaccine (JENVAC) in 2013. Also, Hepatitis B vaccine and second dose of measles vaccine are now part of the Universal Immunization Programme. Pentavalent, a combination vaccine, which includes DPT + Hep-B + Hib has been introduced in eight states: Kerala, Tamil Nadu in December 2011 and Puducherry, Goa, Haryana, Gujarat, Karnataka and J & K in 2012-13. This ensures complete immunization against five diseases and also reduces the chances of an adverse event following immunization due to less injection load. Government of India earlier provided only one JE dose and now has introduced two doses of JE vaccine under Routine Immunization with first dose at 9-12 months and 2nd dose at 16-24 months with effect from 1st April 2013.

The Government has also launched Reverse Dot Blot Hybridization (RDB) Thalassemia Diagnostic Kit and AV Magni-Visualiser the screening device for cervical cancer in December, 2013 and indigenously developed Diabetes Screening System and Test Strips in January 2014.

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